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Engineering Technology

What are the Potential Challenges of MIMO Antennas?

An awful lot of newly established wireless networks nowadays are highly dependent on MIMO antennas. MIMO stands for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output. This technology boasts of taking wireless performance of devices to a heightened level of efficiency and reliability. However, much like every other system we have in the modern world, this one has its  own share of weak points. We are going to show you here now some of the most common pitfalls linked to the use and selection of MIMO antennas.

The process of choosing the most appropriate antenna for your application can never be qualified as a trivial undertaking. While system designs are closing in to their full completion, the idea about the use of antenna comes to mind. System designers are always in high anticipation of the gains they need to obtain from the antenna, after which they’d go about and shop around looking for any reasonably priced antenna. They sometimes fall on a whim of looking for an antenna based only on its cool factor or good aesthetics, oblivious of the requirements that it requires.

With regard to the conventional single communications channel, the quarter-wave and half-wave antennas are understood really. The peak current of  standard half-wave antenna is in the middle, while the peak voltage can be found at its end. The center’s peak current is considered very handy due to the antenna’s extremely low impedance and the perfect spot for  antenna feeding using transmission lines of 50 Ohm. We call half-wave antennas dipoles, and we qualify them as plane ground independent.

In a basic quarter-wave antenna, voltage peaks can have a one-quarter wavelength from its feed point. This makes the ground plane dimension to be at least a quarter wave long to allow a properly balanced antenna. Quarter-wave antennas are ground plane dependent and we call them monopoles.

Usually, a half-wave design will not be needing an additional ground plane. Therefore, if you will make an effort to attach that to an access point plastic enclosure, it will not affect its performance. And for this reason, the system designer is likely to witness his expected performance.

If a system designer decided to have a quarter-wave design and have that on the exact, same plastic enclosure, he is up for some surprise that the performance he is anticipating to see is lower than what he is expecting. A simple type of quarter-wave antenna needs to work against a ground plane.

In the case of access point plastic enclosure, there is no metal intended for the quarter-wave. Hence, you can substitute internal components for a ground plane. This may induce the RF current to be possibly seen in any metal that is within its reach, such as the power supply leads.  

If, from the very start, the system designer knew already that a quarter-wave antenna is the best choice for his access, more targeted steps could have been utilized while still in the design stages.

Metalization in the plastic enclosed unit could have been utilized instead. It would provide the plane ground of the antenna electronic shielding. The main circuit board also could be designed to work as the ground plane without the need to create an impact on the other electronics, which is done typically in cellular or mobile phones.

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Health

Can We Still Trust TRT in Australia If These Mistakes Become Too Common?

According to medical professionals in the country, TRT in Australia is fast becoming more popular than ever before. This means to say that there is an increasing number of men, mostly belonging to the senior age bracket, who need to undergo this kind of hormone-balancing therapy. Otherwise, they would run the risk of putting the quality of their life on the line.

To fully optimize the benefits of this hormone treatment program to our bodies, it would work to our best interest to know and be aware of the common mistakes that TRT doctors and patients alike would commit. We may not consider these things as bad practices, but doing so would still run the risk of compromising the best results we are anticipating to have.

Below is a compilation of these mistakes observable in TRT Australia where patients and even TRT doctors are likely to commit following a testosterone replacement therapy.

Mistake 1: Choosing a TRT Sydney program that does not fit your personality or lifestyle

Without any intention to spite or vilify TRT doctors in the country, but they tend to prescribe a testosterone protocol to which they feel they are most familiar or comfortable with. Such treatments would come in the form of injection, gel, or pills. But it is important to not all testosterone protocols will be suitable for every person, most especially with respect to their lifestyle or personality.

To better illustrate this, we need to cite an example. If you are a TRT patient, and you tend to sweat a lot or you enjoy engaging yourself in workout programs, then the use of transdermal patches or even creams would not be as effective as a testosterone injection would be. Common sense will tell us that the contents of these transdermal patches won’t be effectively or completely absorbed by the skin. It is because your skin’s natural tendency to release copious amounts of perspiration would simply get in the way of its absorption.

Do you dread injectables, the needles in particular? If that is the case, testosterone injection may not be perfectly suitable for you to even try.

So, imagine the stress you’d go through if your TRT doctor would suggest that you carry out the injection on your own. Even if you are not dreadful of the needle of a syringe, the sheer fact that you are not well versed in doing so can send you jitters and perspire profusely.

testosterone injectables

The best thing to do here is to reach out to a TRT physician who is well acquainted with the majority of TRT protocols. He needs to have enough diligence to know first what your personality type is as well as the current lifestyle you have. Otherwise, you will just get yourself disappointed when your best expectations about TRT treatment won’t seem to ever materialize anytime soon.

Mistake 2: Taking the Wrong Dosage

If you meet someone who has nothing good to say about TRT options in Australia, who’d assert that TRT therapy was not good and did not help or improve his condition in any way — trust that this will have something to do with the right dosage for his medications.

It is crucial to understand that the perceived beneficial impact of testosterone replacement therapy would vary from person to person. Say for instance that you as an individual would require a total T to 700, mine could be increased to a maximum amount of 400 only. Your body may only need 700 to fully reap the benefits of TRT, but in my case, there is a good chance that it might not be enough.

This means to say that the frequency and the dosage need to have the proper adjustments from time to time to fully enjoy the benefits they bring along.

Mistake 3: Your lifestyle is not testosterone-friendly

Indulging oneself to excessive amounts of alcohol, being overweight, smoking, the habit of sleeping in the wee hours of the morning, not engaging in proper exercise, and taking your blood sugar levels for granted are some of the biggest and most common mistakes that a TRT patient makes.

As much as you can, veer yourself away from these bad habits and should not think of making them part of your lifestyle. Testosterone replacement therapy, when done right and your lifestyle is in sync with what is the most recommended way of living, you have a good chance of living the life of a 20 or a 30-year-old man.

The wrong practices mentioned above will work against TRT treatment and will deplete your body of its remaining testosterone reserves. Unfortunately, there is no amount of treatment program for testosterone that will be able to compensate and offset your kind of lifestyle.

To make your TRT experience to the best of your expectations, we highly recommend that you observe health-promoting habits.

If you are most interested to learn more about this, reaching out to a reputable physician is most recommended. Raising your issues, concerns, doubts, and questions to the right medical professional is the best way to find the answers you are looking for.

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Health

How Weight Loss Surgery Helps People Overcome Obesity

Obesity has a great impact on the life of a person in a way that affects mobility and health is seriously disabled. As a result of this, people undergo some type of weight loss surgery to address this problem and improve their life.

Weight Loss Surgery as an Option

Bariatric surgery is considered to be one of the best options to shed weight for people who are extremely obese and have a BMI of over 35. But it is important for people to realize that they should not fully rely on surgery and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Different Types of Surgery

Such medical procedure comes in three different types that include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy.

Gastric Banding

This is a procedure where the stomach is being partitioned into two pouches with the help of a band. Such a band is adjustable, and the patient needs to recover from the surgery before it can be re-adjusted for weight loss.

Gastric Bypass

For this type of weight loss surgery, a tiny pouch is created in the upper stomach. A part of the small intestine is connected to this pouch. While liquid and food have flowed into the part of the digestive tract, the stomach is bypassed.

This is recommended for people who have high BMI or those who can’t even walk short distances. For those who have issues such as sleep apnea, the risk of difficulties is higher. But if the doctor says that the patient can proceed with this surgery, there are a lot of advantages as food intake is restricted and the body absorbs fewer calories and supplements.

Additionally, a significant part of the stomach is removed while a thin sleeve is held. Using staples, the stomach is kept closed. This type of surgery is not reversible as a part of the stomach has been taken out.

Expectations

These medical procedures ensure that the stomach will get less nourishment and the patient will feel fuller faster. While patients may lose 70% in gastric bypass, patients of sleeve gastrectomy lose about 60% and gastric banding lose around 50%.

When will the Patient Lose those Pounds?

This may vary considering the type of surgery. For instance, in sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery, the normal weight loss happens by 12-15 months of the method. On the other hand, in gastric banding, weight loss is more gradual, and it is expected to reach about two years after having the operation.

Follow-ups are very important in any type of weight reduction procedure, especially that the lifestyle of a person tends to change. If you are someone who is suffering from excessive obesity and is looking for a solution, it is important to seek the right type of treatment for your condition.

There are various centers that provide a surgery that can aid in weight loss. Click here to see the different types of surgeries. It is important to choose one that has more positive and effective results. Also, before undergoing any type of surgery, be sure that you consult and seek doctor’s advice first.

Categories
Engineering

Difference Between Water Jet Cutting and Laser Jet Cutting

Water jet cutting and laser jet cutting are two of the most commonly used material cutting methods in the manufacturing industry. With respect to the material in question and the desired end result, either of these two options would be appropriate for a given application. By delving deeper into the fundamental differences that exist between these two material cutting methods and the range of materials that they usually work well with, we’d be able to determine when and to which project they will best work for.

Laser Cutting 

CO2 is considered as the lifeblood of laser cutting machines, it functions as its energy or fuel. This gas is being transmitted through a beam and under the guidance of custom-built mirrors, then finally directed to your material. In CO2 laser cutting machines, the source of the laser itself can be located inside the machine itself. The beam of the laser can produce an output between 1500 to 2600 watts. When trying to consider the application of laser cutting method in your material cutting requirements, applications, materials as well as precision and safety are among some of the important factors to take into account.  

Materials and Applications 

You can work with laser cutting machines with a manifold of materials. This would include wood, glass, plastic and all kinds of metals with only one exception though, the reflective type. If the material you are going to use as a workpiece is comprised of different materials with different melting points, it might pose a certain level of challenge. Sandwiched structures highlighted by cavities might not be cut by CO2 laser, and any material that eventually proves as having limited access will prove to be difficult to cut also. Cutting material for a 3D project will pose a certain level of a challenge due to the rigid beam guidance.   

Precision and Safety

Precision and accuracy have never been an issue with laser cutting. Depending on the laser speed itself, the minimum cutting slit size can reach to 0.006 inches. Thinner workpieces are at a greater risk of suffering from gas pressure in case that the proper distance is not well maintained. Partial burring is likely to occur due to thermal stress. This will render your cut material to have a striated appearance.  

While safety goggles may not be a constant requirement, the laser cutting process may produce dust and smoke. With some metals and plastics, it may run the risk of even producing toxic fumes, therefore proper ventilation would be critical. Overall, the perceived risks involved when working with a laser cutter is rather low, much like the amount of produced waste and the subsequent cleanup.  

Water Jet Technology

Contrary to how laser cutting machines work, water jet cutters make use of strongly pressurized water to cut through a wide range of materials. To further intensify its cutting power, abrasive particles such as aluminum oxide and garnets can be added to water. Overall, the water jet process is designed to imitate the erosion of the soil in the mountains and nature, just that it is done with much stronger force, greater speed, and higher concentration. 

A high-pressure pump is worked to drive water through tiny and rigid hoses. This action will result in the production of a forceful water jet. Regular water jet cutting machine typically produces about 4-7 kilowatts of output. If the laser source in laser cutters are located inside the cutting machine itself, it works pretty differently for water jets – the pump and the work area are always separate from each other.  

Material and Applications

Water jets are highly reputed in the industry due to its ability to cut through virtually almost any kind of material, even with the combination of materials. But there is one downside to the use of water jet technology and that involves the risk of delamination. 

You can make use of water jet technology with your 3D material cutting projects. But they usually tend to exhibit having a limited ability when it comes to handling sandwich cavities and structures. It is possible to work with materials that give you limited access to it but working your way through it will be very challenging or difficult.  

Precision and Safety

Compared to laser cutting, water jet technology is considered by many experts as not absolutely at par with it. Due to the high amount of force that it requires to have, thin and small parts don’t fare well, and for this reason, they need to be handled with extra care. While thermal stress is not likely to be seen as a possible issue and burring is not likely to appear in the cut, the material surface will have a sand-blasted appearance due to the abrasive material added to the water. This necessitates the use of goggles for eye and face protection. 

Water jet cutting may produce noise. Aside from which may also necessitate a good amount of clean up work to be done in the work area. The addition of abrasive material to the water may likely produce a significant amount of waste.

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Health

What Hair Loss Treatment Will Work Best for Everyone?

The trouble with thinning hair in women is that it is a common issue nowadays. Gone are those times when many are thinking that only men suffer from hair thinning and balding because women are as susceptible to it too as the men are. If you belong to the countless number of men and women who are anxious about this concern and are experiencing the self-worth damaging effects of thinning hair, what possible hair loss treatment can you try and expect good results?

Instead of hair loss treatment options, here are some good measures that will help in the prevention of thinning hair.

1. Mind Your Vitamins Intake to Keep Hair Loss Issues at Bay.

Work on the inside first before paying attention to your hair. Stronger hair strands can only be made possible when you are taking adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, especially those that are intended for healthier hair and its growth. Start looking for supplements that are rich in biotin, niacin, and zinc. These minerals are known to significantly help in achieving full and healthy hair. 

How Can Biotin Prevent Hair Loss?

Biotin is one of the B vitamins. This essential nutrient is highly reputed due to its power in keeping human hair strands from thinning. Regular intake of biotin will enhance the natural structure of your body’s keratin, which is the primary component of hair, nails, and skin.

Although we have a very limited amount of research regarding biotin and how effective it is in preventing hair loss, specialists are still encouraging the use of biotin supplementation, even promotes the use of hair care products that are infused with it.

young woman with fuller hair

Natural food items that are a rich source of biotin include:

  • Egg yolks
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Organ meats

2. Veer Away from Washing Your Hair Too Often

As much as possible, veer away from washing your hair each time you shower or take a bath. Too frequent washing of your hair runs the risk of stripping your scalp of its natural protective oils. And when this happens, it will render your hair and scalp to become severely dry, and your hair strands, brittle and prone to breakage.

We recommend washing your hair with a hair thickening shampoo at least 2-3 times only, every single week. This frequency will help make way for the even distribution of the natural oil in your scalp. It is crucially important to achieve a good balance on this aspect.

3. Find and Use a Suitable Hair Follicle-Stimulating Shampoo

shampooing hair

You may try rinsing your hair with vinegar to give it a much-deserved deep cleaning. After this, follow it up with the use of a follicle-stimulating shampoo. Normally, these types of shampoos are mixed with peptide complex – ingredients that are intended in providing help to strengthen your hair follicles.

Most people using such kind of shampoo observed that they have a lesser amount of hair fall when combing it. Moreover, it makes hair softer without needing a conditioner, which normally would just weigh down thin hair.

4. Consider Incorporating Regular Consumption of Collagen for Thicker Hair

I consider this as my favorite recommendation when it comes to thickening fine hair. You can incorporate over-the-counter collagen products to your diet and do it regularly. Consumable collagen products come in powder form and can be used daily.

My original purpose for using collagen is for my skin, but I kind of noticed that my hair, too, is becoming a lot fuller, with more volume and bouncier after about 5 weeks of use. I also noticed that with regular consumption of a collagen product, my hair grew faster than it normally would.

Final Words!

If you are seriously wanting an instant solution, either to conceal thinning hair on your scalp or you still have full coverage of hair on your head but want to give it more body and volume, we strongly recommend that you try hair fibres. Alongside this, you can complement it with a good hair fiber spray for a longer-lasting look.